The far-reaching gravitational force is described by a heuristic impact model with hypothetical massless entities propagating at the speed of light in vacuum transferring momentum and energy between massive bodies through interactions on a local basis. In the original publication in 2013, a spherical symmetric emission of secondary entities had been postulated. The potential energy problems in gravitationally and electrostatically bound two-body systems have been studied in the framework of this impact model of gravity and of a proposed impact model of the electrostatic force. These studies have indicated that an antiparallel emission of a secondary entity—now called graviton—with respect to the incoming one is more appropriate. This article is based on the latter choice and presents the modifications resulting from this change. The model has been applied to multiple interactions of gravitons in large mass conglomerations in several publications. They will be summarized here taking the modified interaction process into account. In addition, the speed of photons as a function of the gravitational potential is considered in this context together with the dependence of atomic clocks and the redshift on the gravitational potential.
Part of the book: Planetology