Brucellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the Brucella bacteria. Neonatal brucellosis is very rare and preventable and is an example of intrauterine infection, but clinical manifestations as well as transmission route are not well defined but presumed transplacental transmission. The neonate can be either infected transplacentally, or by ingestion of mother’s secretions and blood during delivery, or by ingestion of breast milk. Presentation of the neonatal brucellosis including fever, arthralgia, weakness, malaise, respiratory distress, pneumonia, enlargement of liver and spleen, fever, thrombocytopenia, late neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and septicoemia. The diagnosis of brucellosis was based on a positive blood culture (isolation Brucella of blood culture from both the mother and the neonate or only neonate) and on a high or rising titer of antibodies to the Brucella organism (positive serology only in the mother or both). The neonates with negative Brucella serology may also have Brucella infection. The mortality rate is very high, and infected neonates need early detection and timely treatment. Early detection and treatment reduce the incidence of complications. The treatment of rifampicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is useful for neonatal brucellosis. More patients with neonatal brucellosis well respond to antibiotic therapy and must monitor by a Brucella titer of <1:40.
Part of the book: New Insight into Brucella Infection and Foodborne Diseases