Renal physiology and physiopathology have been the object of studies aimed at developing exams that can assist in the early diagnosis of the base disease. Chronic kidney disease consists of the progressive, irreversible loss of kidney function. Early detection and appropriate treatment can minimize the progression of the disease, lower the inherent costs, and improve the quality of life of affected individuals. Kidney biopsy is the key method in this evaluation, as it enables the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of specimens in a fast, safe, and economical manner. The main indications for kidney biopsy are nephrotic syndrome, acute kidney failure of unknown etiology, persistent hematuria and proteinuria, chronic kidney disease with conserved kidney dimensions, and transplanted kidneys (to evaluate stages of rejection, infection, and/or sclerosis). However, as an invasive method, kidney biopsy is not without complications. Post-biopsy complication rates range from 5 to 15%, with 6.6% considered minor (macrohematuria with no need for blood transfusion) and another 7.7% considered major (hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion or other approaches). In this chapter, we address the main aspects of kidney biopsy, the technical procedures for its execution, and the management of the main complications stemming from this procedure.
Part of the book: Renal Diseases