Parasitoids have a long history of pest management, specially for control of economical important lepidopteran pests, such as Noctuidae, Tortricidae, and Pyralidae. The two major parasitoids super families Trichogrammatidae and Braconidae in relation to biocontrol of lepidopteron pests are important. In this chapter: (i) the mass production of the moth egg parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae), which has been known to occur in Iran and attack many important hosts Lepidoptera, such as the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1808), Carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839), and the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758) in the region and (ii) biology and parasitism behavior of Bracon (Glabrobracon) variator Nees, 1811, as larval ectoparasitoid of Cydia johanssoni Aarvik and Karsholt, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a seed feeder of Anagyris foetida Linnaeus, 1758 (Fabaceae) at forest habitats in Western Iran, are discussed. Host development was arrested immediately upon parasitism. The dissected capsules show each adult female lay three eggs close to host larvae inside seed case. Video films and photographs of the behavior as research documents were recorded. Both aestivation and hibernation of the parasitoid occur in the parasitization rate on C. johanssoni averaged 18.77% ± 3.80, during second generation of the parasitoid wasp, B. (G.) variator.
Part of the book: Trends in Integrated Insect Pest Management