Changing lifestyle and sedentary schedule have led to the substantial increase in major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiac problems, cancers, diabetes, psychiatric disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases. Recent times have shown increased trends in incidence as well as prevalence of renal diseases. Hemodialysis is the most opted treatment modality for the patients of chronic renal diseases. Hence, the aim of the current chapter is to address the effect of renal diseases and its treatment on oral health. An extensive literature search from the year 2000 till 2015 was conducted to assess the effect of hemodialysis and renal diseases on various clinical parameters associated with oral health like dental caries, periodontal diseases, prevalence of calculus, etc. The literature review revealed that the dental health is compromised in the patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy. The oral health-related parameters get worsened with increasing duration of hemodialysis as well. The primary reason behind the debilitated periodontal condition among the patients may be attributed to the neglect of proper oral hygiene practices by the patient as they are preoccupied by more time-consuming and life-threatening kidney disease. A strong relation between oral health and hemodialysis has been observed. There is a need for further interdisciplinary research with emphasis on preventive dental treatment for the patients undergoing hemodialysis ensuring optimum outcome.
Part of the book: Renal Diseases