Many cities in developing countries are facing serious problems of microbiological quality of their water resources. In this context, chlorination is used as common method of treating water intended for human consumption. However, it has been shown that disinfection by chlorination is ineffective in inactivating Cryptosporidium oocysts. Therefore, the physicochemical behavior of Cryptosporidium oocysts and geological formation of those areas become an important environmental issue of research. In Haiti, Cryptosporidium oocysts have been identified in the groundwater being used for human consumption in Les Cayes. Moreover, cryptosporidiosis is one of the most frequent causes of diarrhea in Haiti. The transfer of Cryptosporidium oocysts, through an alluvial formation from Les Cayes (Haiti), was investigated. The aim of this chapter was (i) to review the biological cycle of Cryptosporidium and the physicochemical behavior of Cryptosporidium oocysts in order (ii) to understand their movement through soils and (iii) to evaluate the chemical conditions and soil characteristics which can constitute factors influencing the retention of oocysts or facilitate their transfer into groundwater.
Part of the book: Environmental Health