Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) is the most threatened species of gibbon, the endemic primates of China. Currently, there were only 4 groups no more than 30 individuals left, which is only distributed in a 16 km2 area (H: 800–1280 m) of Bawangling National Nature Reserve of Hainan island in China. The social structure of the Hainan gibbon is polygynous, with one adult male pairing with two adult females. Hainan gibbon research has always been one of the hot spots of primate research, mainly concentrated in ecology, behavior, and genetic research. Here, we mainly reported the classification, historical population changes, community structure, dietary, reproductive and song behavior of Hainan gibbon. We also reported the other unique primate of China: Guizhou snub-nosed monkey.
Part of the book: Endemic Species