Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are particles released in the extracellular space from all cell types in physiological and pathological conditions and emerge as a new way of cell-cell communication by transferring their biological contents into target cells. The levels and composition of circulating EVs differ from a normal condition to a pathological one, making them real circulating biomarkers. EVs have a very complex contribution in both health and disease, most likely in relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The involvement of EVs to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes remains an open discussion for therapists. Circulating EVs may offer a continuous access path to circulating information on the disease state and a new perspective in finding a correct diagnosis, in estimating a prognosis and also in applying an effective therapy. Besides their role as biomarkers and targets for therapy, EVs can be exploited as biological tools in influencing the different processes affected in diabetic cardiovascular diseases. This chapter will summarize the current knowledge about EVs as biological vectors modulating diabetic cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Finally, we will point out EVs’ considerable value as clinical biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and potential biomedical tools for the discovery of effective therapy in diabetic cardiovascular diseases.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles and Their Importance in Human Health