Infectious keratitis tops the list of diseases leading to visual impairment and corneal blindness. Corneal opacities, predominantly caused by infectious keratitis, are the fourth leading cause of blindness globally. In the developed countries, infectious keratitis is usually associated with contact lens wear, but in developing countries, it is commonly caused by trauma during agricultural work. The common causative organisms are bacteria, fungus, Acanthamoeba, and virus. Severe cases can progress rapidly and cause visual impairment or blindness that requires corneal transplantation, evisceration, or enucleation. The precise clinical diagnosis, accurate diagnostic tools, and timely appropriate management are important to reduce the morbidity associated with infectious keratitis. Despite the advancement of diagnostic tools and antimicrobial drugs, outcomes remain poor secondary to corneal melting, scarring, or perforation. Eye care strategies should focus on corneal ulcer prevention. This review addresses the epidemiology, diagnostic approach, clinical manifestations, risk factors, investigations, treatments, and the update of major clinical trials about common pathogens of infectious keratitis.
Part of the book: Visual Impairment and Blindness
Keratoconus is a bilateral, asymmetric, progressive disease of the cornea which can lead to visual impairment and blindness as irregular astigmatism increases and corneal scar occurs. Currently, many methods are available for a treatment of keratoconus. The treatment can help enhance visual rehabilitation and prevent progression in keratoconus patients. The treatment options included non-surgical and surgical managements. This review offers a summary of the current and emerging treatment options for keratoconus- eyeglasses, contact lens, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), CXL Plus, intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS), Corneal Allogenic Intrastromal Ring Segments (CAIRS), Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK), Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK), Bowman layer transplantation (BL transplantation) and gene therapy.
Part of the book: Eyesight and Imaging - Advances and New Perspectives