This section considers the structural characteristics of spermatozoon, its assembly, composition, and mechanism behind regulation of their peculiar function. The spermatozoon is tremendously peculiar cell with an arrangement of structural characteristics which furnish it with remarkable capability of carrying the genome of male to the egg. A variety of genes are only expressed in spermatids and result in the formation of proteins that are very crucial and distinctive to spermatozoa. These proteins package the DNA, form the head of sperm, account the component of matrix and enzymes of acrosome, construct the flagellar structure, and work as ion channels that are associated in modulating the motility of sperm and also become adenylyl cyclase which yields cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to induce signaling effect which regulates the function of spermatozoon. These proteins are critical essential to sperm and, sometimes, mutation inhibits their synthesis or disrupts their function which leads to male infertility. Researchers are trying to identify those proteins that are significant for proper function of sperm through gene knockout approach in mice that are probable to be necessary in humans as well. However, various questions still persist regarding the spermatozoon composition, organization, and function and need to be answered.
Part of the book: Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology