Carbonization is the art of reinventing the waste biomass into a carbon−/energy-rich charcoal. It redefines the principles of renewable energy and power generation. Char is produced by a pyrolysis process in which the biomass is heated in an inert atmosphere to high temperatures until absorbed volatiles are expelled thus enriching its heating value and energy content. Carbonization itself is an old process that is being used till now, but the renewed interest in it especially with biomass is because it opens new doors for commercial and scientific applications. The carbon can be extracted from the produced char to form the precious graphite and graphene. This chapter provides a general overview about slow pyrolysis processes including carbonization and the torrefaction process which is a mild carbonization process. The characterization of different biomass species and their effect on the carbonization process and the final product will be also discussed. Different carbonization processes and methodologies which vary in the process parameters will be addressed, and the most promising ones will be highlighted. An important addition to this chapter is the general design parameters, methodologies, and factors that must be taken into consideration when designing carbonization reactors for lab and industrial designs.
Part of the book: Renewable Energy