The characterization of the diversity of species living within ecosystems is of major scientific interest to understand the functioning of these ecosystems. It is also becoming a societal issue since it is necessary to implement the conservation or even the restoration of biodiversity. Historically, species have been described and characterized on the basis of morphological criteria, which are closely linked by environmental conditions or which find their limits especially in groups where they are difficult to access, as is the case for many species of microorganisms. The need to understand the molecular mechanisms in species has made the PCR an indispensable tool for understanding the functioning of these biological systems. A number of markers are now available to detect nuclear DNA polymorphisms. In genetic diversity studies, the most frequently used markers are microsatellites. The study of biological complexity is a new frontier that requires high-throughput molecular technology, high speed computer memory, new approaches to data analysis, and the integration of interdisciplinary skills.
Part of the book: Synthetic Biology