Histamine is a biogenic amine involved in important physiological activities in the organism, but its ingestion through food is associated with the onset of health disorders. Histamine intoxication, previously known as scombroid fish poisoning, is caused by the intake of foods with high levels of histamine. According to official European Union reports, more than 90% of the outbreaks registered in the last years were caused by the consumption of fish and seafood products. Histamine intolerance, on the other hand, arises when histamine degradation is impaired, mainly by a lower diamine oxidase (DAO) activity. Some of the uncertainties classically associated with histamine intoxication may be explained by this enzymatic deficit in a sensitive population. This chapter reviews the adverse effects of histamine from food within a risk analysis framework, focusing specifically on the components of risk assessment and management.
Part of the book: Biogenic Amines