Wine is an ancient and popular alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes. Different yeasts and bacteria strains produce different styles of wines. Over time, the inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to produce wine has been the common practice in the wine industry, and the other species of yeasts have been considered undesirable for the alcoholic fermentation. However, in the last decades, the use of wild or indigenous yeasts and lactic acid bacteria strains has significantly increased. Wild yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are interesting microorganisms that contribute to differentiate the wine character of a region. The production of wines by spontaneous or inoculated fermentations by selected wild microorganisms may be an interesting tool to improve the quality of wines. This chapter summarizes relevant aspects of these microorganisms related to this scientific field.
Part of the book: Yeasts in Biotechnology