This chapter was aimed to investigate the relationship between the consumption of water of Bambuí Aquifer with natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the municipality of Santana, Bahia, Brazil. Hydrochemistry and cluster analysis indicated that there were two groups differentiable in relation to TDS, pH, F-, rNa+/rCa2+, and saturation indexes of minerals. The fluoride concentration varied from 0.05 to 9.16 mg.L−1 in the samples and the prevalence of dental fluorosis was 53%, 17% moderate, or severe, which was associated of the consumption of groundwater. The toxic levels of fluoride reached 47% of the samples, where the risk of skeletal fluorosis (20%) and incapacitating fluorosis (20%) was estimated. The water supply service should include the monitoring of fluoride in groundwater, the implementation of sanitary and environmental health surveillance of endemic fluorosis, and the continuing training of professionals for health in this municipality.
Part of the book: Groundwater Hydrology