Preeclampsia is a multisystem progressive disorder characterized by new onset of hypertension and proteinuria or hypertension and significant end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Recently, it has been shown that early preeclampsia is associated with abnormalities in oxygen sensing since early preeclampsia; the placenta is unable to regulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1- (HIF1-) alpha levels. The risk factors that are involved in the development of preeclampsia are also the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus as well as insulin resistance, increased body mass index (>35 kg/m2), and elevated diastolic blood pressure > 80 mm Hg. Further risk factors are positive family history of preeclampsia, multiple pregnancy, pregnant women over 40 years, preexisting renal disease, and clotting disorders. All biophysical and biochemical markers are shown to be used for prediction of preeclampsia. Meanwhile, it has been obvious that a single examined marker might not have the conclusion to accurately predict subsequent preeclamptic risk. Consequently, it seems to be convincing to apply history, biophysical, and several biochemical parameters to conclude the best possible detection rate.
Part of the book: Prediction of Maternal and Fetal Syndrome of Preeclampsia