Rapid growth of global human population has been implicating to food shortage, social problems and environmental degradation. Contraceptive devices have long been applied as a major method to reduce natality. Current application of this technology relies upon hormonal administration, condom, withdrawal and recently hormonal vaccino-contraceptive. Discoveries of antisperm proteins have been directing current researches toward developments of antisperm antibody (ASA) contraceptions. Actions of ASA are targeting antigens either on the head or on the tail of sperm. Antibodies targeting head antigens aimed at blocking gamete fusion, ZP penetration and/or acrosome reaction. Molecules working on sperm tails are aimed to block sperm motility or energy production. PCSK4 is one sperm antigen firstly expressed on the human sperm acrosome during its initial development on the round spermatid and retains on the acrosome until sperm is matured. It is known to contribute to the post-capacitational hyperactivation of sperm essential for zona penetration. Rat models injected with rabbit-anti human PCSK4 developed incompetent sperm and allowance of these male rats to fertile female rats resulted significant reduction of conception rate. Apart from antibody, synthetic inhibitors of PCSK4 have also been developed. Future developments of ASA contraception are discussed.
Part of the book: Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology
Graves’ disease is a form of specific autoimmune disorder in the thyroid organ characterized by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb). Pregnant women are the most susceptible to GD due to hormonal changes and tolerance of immune responses during pregnancy. The incidence of prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), and neonatal thyrotoxicosis risk are the most complications that can be acquired if treatment is late and inadequate. It has implications for increased fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. Apart from being a biomarker for definitive diagnosis, TSAb testing is also beneficial for assessing treatment response and predicting relapse of GD (relapse) after oral anti-thyroid treatment. GD patients with high TPOAb titers also tend to have a high relapse rate. However, the evaluation of both TSAb and TPOAb examinations during and after treatment is rarely done routinely due to the examination’s high cost. This works proposed developing TSHR and TPO antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests through the immunochromatography method to address the challenges of financing and limited laboratory facilities in the area. Besides, understanding the importance of examining thyroid antibodies (TSAb and TPOAb) and interpretation in clinical practice is still a matter of debate in clinical circles, so it requires in-depth information.
Part of the book: Graves' Disease