Nonregenerable calli (NRC) derived from immature seeds of japonica rice were inoculated on MS medium containing 10 μM 2,4-D (MSD10). They turned to highly regenerable calli (HRC) when sorbitol was supplemented into the medium. Meanwhile, high levels of endogenous IAA and ABA were accumulated in HRC. Exogenous IAA precursor and ABA in MSD10 have the same effect to enhance regeneration ability. However, there are only partial effects if IAA precursor or ABA was supplemented, respectively. The regeneration ability is prominently decreased from 75% to 25% while an auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, was included in the medium. It suggested that endogenous auxin signal and ABA may involve in the induction of HRC. Furthermore, it showed higher contents of glucose, sucrose, and starch and higher expression levels of wall-bound invertase 1, sucrose transporter 1 (OsSUT1), and OsSUT2 genes in HRC than in NRC. The expression levels of PIN-formed 1 and LEA1 were also consistent with the trend of carbohydrate metabolisms. We thus concluded a flowchart for HRC induction by osmotic stress. According to the hypothesis, osmotic stress may regulate endogenous levels of auxin interacting with ABA, then affect carbohydrate metabolism to trigger callus initiation and further shoot regeneration in rice.
Part of the book: Plant Science