Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, Mauritius is witnessing an unprecedented increase in air pollution. The release of hazardous gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide are not only harmful to the health of the population but are also causing irreversible impact to the environment. Currently, there are only two fixed air quality monitoring units on the island and therefore, air pollution cannot be monitored in real-time. The objective of this chapter is to describe the implementation of a low-cost and energy-efficient air quality monitoring system using wireless sensor network (WSN) that can be easily deployed in highly polluted areas of Mauritius. A Hierarchical Based Genetic Algorithm (HBGA) is proposed to address the issue of sensor nodes with limited energy. Based on hierarchical routing and genetic algorithm, HBGA has been designed to extend the lifetime of the network by minimizing the energy consumption. The proposed air quality monitoring system uses an air quality index that can be easily interpreted. The evaluation results confirm the potential of the proposed system for real-time temporal and spatial monitoring of air quality. Moreover, it possible for the general public to have access to the air quality monitoring results in real time.
Part of the book: Wireless Sensor Networks