Primary immunodeficiencies are the result of biological defects associated with functional immune abnormalities. It consists of a group of disorders showing a higher incidence and severity of infections, expression of immunological dysregulation such as inflammation and lymphoproliferation. The immunophenotyping and in vitro functional characterization of immunodeficient patients contribute, together with the clinical aspects, to define the underlying immune defect particularities. Flow cytometry applications in primary immunodeficiency assessment are multiple and include the study of a wide range of specific cell lymphocyte subpopulations. This chapter describes the main techniques used in the diagnosis of a wide variety of primary immunodeficiencies, in which intracellular proteins or activation markers involved in immunity are evaluated, as well as functional proliferation, cytokine production, phosphorylation of transcription factors, cytotoxic and degranulation capacity. Flow cytometry is a tool that allows rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple lymphocyte populations and immunological function, and this information is essential for the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with primary immunodeficiencies.
Part of the book: Innovations in Cell Research and Therapy