Sperm abnormalities are a major factor of human infertility. Since 1987, there are several references in different editions of World Health Organization (WHO) manual defining optimal sperm parameters. Over the years, many reproductive specialists have been constantly debating, suggesting and remodeling the frame values in those guidelines. Semen parameters have a leading role both in natural conception and assisted reproduction technologies (ART) outcomes. Deviations expressed in lower sperm count, impaired motility, abnormal morphology, and high percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation are linked to reduced chances to achieve pregnancy. In cases with low sperm count, severe oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or azoospermia, karyotyping or evaluation with sperm aneuploidy test (SAT) could be an option and genetic counseling will be necessary if there is an obvious deviation or aberration (e.g., translocation, aneuploidy, etc.). Taking care of lifestyle factors as body mass index (BMI), diets, alcohol intake, smoking, using some additional nutrition and vitamin supplements might affect sperm parameters and contribute to the chances of a couple to conceive.
Part of the book: Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology