Sperm abnormalities are a major factor of human infertility. Since 1987, there are several references in different editions of World Health Organization (WHO) manual defining optimal sperm parameters. Over the years, many reproductive specialists have been constantly debating, suggesting and remodeling the frame values in those guidelines. Semen parameters have a leading role both in natural conception and assisted reproduction technologies (ART) outcomes. Deviations expressed in lower sperm count, impaired motility, abnormal morphology, and high percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation are linked to reduced chances to achieve pregnancy. In cases with low sperm count, severe oligoasthenozoospermia (OA) or azoospermia, karyotyping or evaluation with sperm aneuploidy test (SAT) could be an option and genetic counseling will be necessary if there is an obvious deviation or aberration (e.g., translocation, aneuploidy, etc.). Taking care of lifestyle factors as body mass index (BMI), diets, alcohol intake, smoking, using some additional nutrition and vitamin supplements might affect sperm parameters and contribute to the chances of a couple to conceive.
Part of the book: Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology
Gamete cryobanking has been widely incorporated in present assisted reproductive technology (ART). Preserving male gametes for future fertility is considered to be an easy and accessible way to insure one’s reproduction. Despite the fact that the method could not secure success, sperm freezing could be the only chance to father biological offspring. In cases when severe male factor (SMF) infertility is diagnosed (retrograde ejaculation, virtual azoospermia, obstructive azoospermia, cryptozoospermia) and providing fresh semen samples for assisted reproduction may alter chances to achieve pregnancy, rare sperm cryopreservation could contribute for conceiving. Isolation, selection and cryopreservation of single sperm cells from semen samples is a challenging procedure. Different approaches and devices could be used in order to extract utmost spermatozoa. Aiming to highest cryosurvival rates sperm freezing protocols should be carefully considered. For some men, rare sperm cryopreservation might be the only alternative for parenting biological offspring. Thus, the latter technique should be widely discussed, developed and practiced in assisted reproduction.
Part of the book: Infertility and Assisted Reproduction