In recent years, large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya arbovirus (CHIKV), which is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, have enabled the rapid propagation of the virus across the world. After acute infection phase with commonly fever, joint pain, headache, or rash, chronic rheumatism (arthralgia or myalgia, anorexia, and concentration disorders) up to 40% of cases is observed. The chronic form is defined by symptoms persisting for more than 3 months, and up to years, after initial diagnosis. Chronic discomfort has been linked to one of the four genotypes described. These genotypes represent different geographic lineages (classification based on partial sequence of viral E1 glycoprotein): West African, East-Central-South-African (ECSA), ECSA-diverged or Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL), and Asian. The first marker detected in CHIK infection is the viral RNA, usually by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This marker can be identified in samples within 8 days of symptom onset. The infection can also be diagnosed with serological testing to detect CHIKV-specific immunoglobulin IgG and/or IgM. Sequencing studies can determine the infecting genotype.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Neglected Tropical Diseases