Large earthquakes generate tsunamis, but when it also triggers a landslide, the tsunami may become enormous. Slide scars on the continental shelf of the North Atlantic Ocean show this. For estimating the tsunami, a translatory wave theory has been suggested. Slide data are used to estimate the amplitude of the displacement wave. The amplitudes are used to obtain wave heights at a reference point outside the breaker zone. Energy transmission formulas are used to find the wave height transfer coefficients from the source area to a reference point. Tsunami risk from several sources at a reference point is quantified using stochastic processes, and estimations of a hazard curve for the probability of landslide occurrence are carried out. The sensitivity of the hazard curve to uncertainties in determining the wave height from the individual sources turns can be evaluated. In two case studies, the Tohoku tsunami and earthquake in 2011 in Japan is found to be caused by a coseismic slip and a landslide in combination, and a hazard curve for a reference point south of Iceland is found for tsunamis in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Part of the book: Earthquakes