Nanorods are nanostructures that are the object of fundamental and applied research. They may be prepared from carbon, gold, zinc oxide, and many other materials. They are bigger than individual atoms (measured in angstroms, 1 Å = 10−10 m) and also than small molecules. The turning point for nanomaterials research was the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991. Their mechanical, electrical, and optical properties depend upon their size, allowing for multiple applications. Also, nanorods may be functionalized for different applications. In this Chapter, the methods of synthesis and analysis, and the applications of carbon, zinc oxide, gold, and magnetic nanorods are reviewed.
Part of the book: Nanorods and Nanocomposites
The global demand for energy is expected to rise up to 59% by the year 2035. This is due to the increasing technology developments and contemporary industrialization. Continues trends of these simultaneously will affects the crude fossil oil reserves progressively. Therefore, biofuels that are predominantly produced from the biomass based feedstocks such as plant, algae material and animal waste. Liquid or gaseous biofuels are the most simple to ship, deliver, and burn since they are easier to transport, deliver, and burn cleanly. The key contributor to the elevated green house gaseous concentration is carbon dioxide (CO2). Two-thirds of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions are due to fossil fuel combustion, with the remaining third attributed to land-use changes. Interestingly, recent literature has announced that the utilization of liquid biofuels capable of reducing the CO and CO2 emissions. Other positive impacts of the liquid biofuels are; (1) reduce the external energy dependence, (2) promote the regional engineering, (3) increase the Research & Development activities, (4) reduce the environmental effects of electricity generation and transformation, (5) improve the quality of services for rural residents and (6) provide job opportunities.
Part of the book: Biochar