Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a genetic heterogeneous disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. IPF is characterized by persistent fibroblasts and relentless accumulation of collagen matrix. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) contribute to the progression of the fibrotic process. There are some therapeutic drugs that delay this progress, but eradicative medicine does not exist yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional silencing. Recent reports have shown that miRNAs play important roles in the development of IPF, as different expression levels of miRNAs in blood and lung tissue from IPF patients were closely associated with the occurrence of IPF disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of IPF. In particular, we will focus on the regulation of EMT/EndoMT by miRNAs.
Part of the book: Interstitial Lung Diseases