Anxiety Disorders and Suicide: Psychiatric Interventions
A universal phenomenon equally ancient as the history of mankind, suicide is defined as the willful and intentional ending of one’s own life. Risk factors for suicidal behavior are traumatic childhood and adulthood experiences, negative interfamily interactions, social isolation, decreased social solidarity, financial troubles, losses, despair, impulsivity, and migration. Recognized as a critical public health problem, preliminary causes of suicide are financial, religious, political, social, cultural, and medical in addition to mental disorders like depression and alcohol addiction. It has been proven in a number of researches till today that there is a correlation between major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, alcohol-drug use, and suicidal behavior. Nonetheless, the relation between anxiety disorders and suicidal behavior has not been clearly defined to date. The evidences gathered so far reveal that panic disorder is only an independent risk factor for suicide attempt. The limited number of studies on this domain provided nonhomogenous results. It is however a point to keep in mind that if anxiety disorders are codiagnosed with mental disorders, they pose risk for suicidal behavior. In different studies with a wider sampling in this domain, analyzing the effect of specific anxiety disorders on suicidal behavior might be useful for suicide prevention programs.
Part of the book: A Fresh Look at Anxiety Disorders
Eating Disorders with Comorbidity Anxiety Disorders
Although eating disorders and anxiety disorders (AD) are under different diagnosis categories, it is striking that they have high comorbidity and similar clinical features. The most frequently informed anxiety disorders are obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (SAD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, in cases with a tendency of perfectionism, concern and harm avoidance before the diagnosis of eating disorder, the anxiety disorder is able to be failed to notice. The existence of anxiety disorder or eating disorder makes these syndromes worse. Until today, the relation in between eating disorder and AD has tried to be clarified by phenomenological, neurobiological and family studies. But even if a significant relation has been specified in phenomenological aspect in between OCD and eating disorders, the relation in between eating disorders and other AD is not clear. The existence of AD may be a risk factor in the arise of eating disorders. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of childhood-adolescence occurring AD may prevent the development of eating disorders. The comorbidity of eating disorders and AD is negatively affecting the treatment and prognosis of the disorder. Moreover, there is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of treatment options (medication, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family therapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy) used in the treatment of cases with a diagnosis of concurrent eating disorder and anxiety disorder. In this chapter, a review of the literature on the comorbidity between eating disorders and the anxiety disorders of OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), SAD, GAD, simple phobia, agoraphobia and panic disorder.
Part of the book: Eating Disorders
Treatment and Diagnosis of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) is one of the most common clinical conditions in which the diagnostic complexity is experienced. Misdiagnosis leads to many years of wrong treatment regimens, side effects of drugs, additional financial burdens and adverse effects on social life. Differential diagnosis with epileptic seizures (ES) is one of the most common problems in neurology clinics as well as other health centers. A careful history from the patient and his relatives, detailed neurological and psychiatric examination are very important in reaching the correct diagnosis and treatment. Although imaging advances such as video electroencephalography (vEEG) have improved the ability of physicians to accurately identify these disorders, the diagnosis and treatment of PNES is still a challenging issue. Early diagnosis, young age, less psychiatric comorbidity have a positive effect on prognosis. Psychiatric evaluation of patients with PNES may be particularly helpful in elucidating the etiology and detecting comorbid diseases and may be helpful in the long-term treatment of these patients.
Part of the book: Seizures
The Psychosocial Aspect of InfertilityView all chapters
For both partners, infertility is a complex and situational crisis that is generically psychologically threatening, emotionally stressful, financially challenging, and physically painful most of the times due to diagnostic-curative operations undergone. Infertility triggers a range of physical, psychological, social, emotional, and financial effects. Although it is not a life-threatening problem, infertility is yet experienced as a stressful life event for couples or individuals due to the exalted value attributed to having a child by individuals themselves or society in general. Infertile couples are not facing a medical condition alone but coping with a number of emotional states as well. Emotions, thoughts, and beliefs of infertile couples frequently change as one consequence of infertility diagnosis. Exposed to a tremendous social pressure, infertile couples may resort to hiding the problem due to the extreme privacy of the matter. Infertility also affects marriage life adversely.
Part of the book: Infertility, Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Hormone Assays