Rainfall and evaporation belong to the basic components of the hydrological cycle. Rainfalls are a decisive natural source of water in the soil. For water replenishment in the natural environment, it is important not only the sum of the rainfall for the balanced period but also the time distribution. In the case of long non-rainfall periods, the soil profile is dried. In the sufficiently long non-rainfall period, the water reserves in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile change and the actual evapotranspiration is reduced. There is a meteorological and then dry soil formation. For the design of adaptation measures, it is necessary to quantify the mentioned hydrological processes. These were investigated in the central area of the Eastern Slovak Lowland between 1970 and 2015. Significant non-rainfall periods, their periodicity and statistical characteristics have been identified. In the course of significant non-rainfall intervals during the vegetation periods the water reserves in the root layer of the soil were analysed up to a depth of 1 m, the actual and potential evapotranspiration, the evapotranspiration deficit, the groundwater level and the air temperature. The longest non-rainfall periods exceeded 30 days.
Part of the book: Hydrology