The initial discovery of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) three-line system made it possible to produce hybrids that significantly increase rice yields compared to its inbred counterparts. Further genetic and molecular studies help elucidate the mechanisms involved in CMS male sterility. Additional CMS types were also discovered with similar genetic control from wild sources by interspecific hybridization. While the three-line system was a success, the two line system using photoperiod genetic male sterile (PGMS), thermosensitive genetic male sterile (TGMS) and photoperiod and thermosensitive genetic male sterile (PTGMS) were becoming more popular due to the ease in breeding and with more hybrid combinations generated compared to the CMS types. Inheritance and molecular studies showed that the trait is controlled by one or more recessive genes depending on the genetic background and environmental conditions. Due to the sensitivity of the lines to temperature and/or photoperiod, unique breeding procedures were followed. Methods involved the use of growth chamber, timing of planting, and selection of suitable locations. These practices successfully maintained sterility for hybrid seed production or reversion to fertility for seed multiplication of parental male sterile lines.
Part of the book: Protecting Rice Grains in the Post-Genomic Era