Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) is present in more than 18 countries and has become a global disease in rice. BPB is highly destructive and can cause significant losses of up to 75% in yield and milling quality. BPB is caused by Burkholderia glumae or B. gladioli, with the former being the primary cause of the disease. Outbreaks of BPB are triggered by conditions of high temperatures in combination with high relative humidity at heading. The disease cycle starts with primary infections from infected seed, soil, and irrigation water, and subsequent secondary infections result from rain splash and panicle contact. Limited management options are available for control of BPB. There are only several cultivars including hybrids with partial resistance available currently. Twelve quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the partial resistance have been identified. Oxolinic acid is an effective antibacterial compound for control of BPB in Japan, but it is not labeled for use on rice in the USA and many other countries. Sustainable control of BPB relies on integrated use of available management strategies of exclusion, genetic resistance, chemical control, biocontrol, and cultural practice. Developing and use of resistant cultivars is the best strategy to minimize the damage caused by BPB and maximize rice production in the long term.
Part of the book: Protecting Rice Grains in the Post-Genomic Era