Fresh water quality and supply, particularly for domestic and industrial purposes, are deteriorating with contamination threats on water resources. Multiple technologies in the conventional wastewater treatment (WWT) settings have been adopted to purify water to a desirable quality. However, the design and selection of a suitable cost-effective treatment scheme for a catchment area are essential and have many considerations including land availability, energy, effluent quality and operational simplicity. Three emerging technologies are discussed, including anaerobic digestion, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and membrane technology, which holds great promise to provide integrational alternatives for manifold WWT process and distribution systems to mitigate contaminants and meet acceptable limitations. The main applications, basic principles, merits and demerits of the aforementioned technologies are addressed in relation to their current limitations and future research needs in terms of renewable energy. Hence, the advancement in manufacturing industry along with WWT blueprints will enhance the application of these technologies for the sustainable management and conservation of water.
Part of the book: Water and Wastewater Treatment