Concept and Consequence of Evapotranspiration for Sustainable Crop Production in the Era of Climate Change
The chapter provides an inclusive information related to the adverse effect of climate change on sustainable crop production through understanding evaporation, transpiration as well as evapotranspiration. It is anticipated that water availability in arid and semi-arid regions across the world will decrease, due to lack of rainfall and increase the temperature which leads to increase in the dry areas. Since climate change will impact on soil water balance that leads to change in evaporation and plant transpiration. While, with the increasing temperature, lack of precipitation and soils water unavailability, crop production will likely to decrease through shortening the crop growth cycle. While soils with high water holding capacity and crop cultivars which are tolerant to adverse effect as well as the application of improved management strategies will be better to reduce the impact of drought. Similarly, if the irrigated areas will be expanded, the total crop production will be increased that ultimately lead to increase the food security of increasing population.
Part of the book: Advanced Evapotranspiration Methods and Applications
Chemical Weed Management in Maize (Zea mays L.) under Conservation Agricultural Systems: An Outlook of the Eastern Gangetic Plains in South-Asia
Maize is a widely grown cereal after rice and wheat and contributes almost 5% to the global dietary supply. In the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP) including India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, maize is an emerging cash crop, because of its high yield potentiality and also the favorable climatic conditions which allow maize production round the year. In Bangladesh, area and production of maize are escalating due to the increasing demand for poultry, livestock, and fish feed, and fodder for animals and starch industries in the region. Presently, more than 90% of maize is planted by manual dibbling following 5–6 intensive tillage, which increases the cost of cultivation. The conservation agricultural (CA)-based new agricultural practices could overcome those above challenges. CA is cost-effective and environmentally friendly; however, weeds are one of the key challenges in the system. The chapter described the uses of herbicides in different ways of combinations to make effective weed control in CA-based maize to achieve potential production and profits by reducing the intensive pressure of manual weeding. The efficient and right use of pre-plant/sowing, pre- and post-emergence herbicides and their combination may be the best way for effective control of weeds in maize production.
Part of the book: Maize
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Rice-Wheat Systems of South Asia Is Influenced by Terminal Heat Stress at Late Sown Condition: A Case in Bangladesh
Wheat plays an important role in attaining food and nutritional security in Bangladesh after rice. The demand of wheat has been increasing every year at the rate of 13% due to rapid changes in dietary habits, socio-economic upliftment, enhancement of per capita income, etc. Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute (BWMRI) has already released 34 high yielding, disease-resistant, and abiotic stress-tolerant wheat varieties, and improved management practices to the farmers. Although all the released varieties have climatic yield potential as high as 6.0 t ha−1 with the attainable average yield is 4.0–4.5 t ha−1, the national average yield in farmers’ field is only 3.49 t ha−1; it is specified that there is a huge yield gap existing among potential, attainable and actual yields. One of the most important reasons for this yield gap of wheat is the terminal high temperature stress (HS) in late sowing wheat. Generally, farmers in Bangladesh are sowing wheat lately due to delay in sowing monsoon rice and subsequent late harvest of the rice; as a result, late sown wheat faces terminal HS at reproductive stage. The chapter highlighted the consequences of terminal HS on wheat and potential approaches to mitigate the stress in Bangladesh.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
Consequences and Mitigation Strategies of Heat Stress for Sustainability of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Production under the Changing Climate
Increasing ambient temperature is a major climatic factor that negatively affects plant growth and development, and causes significant losses in soybean crop yield worldwide. Thus, high temperatures (HT) result in less seed germination, which leads to pathogenic infection, and decreases the economic yield of soybean. In addition, the efficiency of photosynthesis and transpiration of plants are affected by high temperatures, which have negative impact on the physio-biochemical process in the plant system, finally deteriorate the yield and quality of the affected crop. However, plants have several mechanisms of specific cellular detection of HT stress that help in the transduction of signals, producing the activation of transcription factors and genes to counteract the harmful effects caused by the stressful condition. Among the contributors to help the plant in re-establishing cellular homeostasis are the applications of organic stimulants (antioxidants, osmoprotectants, and hormones), which enhance the productivity and quality of soybean against HT stress. In this chapter, we summarized the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of soybean plants at various growth stages under HT. Furthermore, it also depicts the mitigation strategies to overcome the adverse effects of HT on soybean using exogenous applications of bioregulators. These studies intend to increase the understanding of exogenous biochemical compounds that could reduce the adverse effects of HT on the growth, yield, and quality of soybean.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
Maize Adaptability to Heat Stress under Changing Climate
The rapidly increasing human population is an alarming issue and would need more food production under changing climate. Abiotic stresses like heat stress and temperature fluctuation are becoming key issues to be addressed for boosting crop production. Maize growth and productivity are sensitive to temperature fluctuations. Grain yield losses in maize from heat stress are expected to increase owing to higher temperatures during the growing season. This situation demands the development of maize hybrids tolerant to heat and drought stresses without compromising grain yield under stress conditions. The chapter aimed to assess the updates on the influence of high-temperature stress (HTS) on the physio-biochemical processes in plants and to draw an association between yield components and heat stress on maize. Moreover, exogenous applications of protectants, antioxidants, and signaling molecules induce HTS tolerance in maize plants and could help the plants cope with HTS by scavenging reactive oxygen species, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and protection of cellular membranes by the accrual of compatible osmolytes. It is expected that a better thought of the physiological basis of HTS tolerance in maize plants will help to develop HTS maize cultivars. Developing HTS-tolerant maize varieties may ensure crops production sustainability along with promoting food and feed security under changing climate.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology
Elevated CO2 Concentration Improves Heat-Tolerant Ability in Crops View all chapters
The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (aCO2) and increasing temperature are the main reasons for climate change, which are significantly affecting crop production systems in this world. However, the elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration can improve the growth and development of crop plants by increasing photosynthetic rate (higher availability of photoassimilates). The combined effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and temperature on crop growth and carbon metabolism are not adequately recognized, while both eCO2 and temperature triggered noteworthy changes in crop production. Therefore, to increase crop yields, it is important to identify the physiological mechanisms and genetic traits of crop plants which play a vital role in stress tolerance under the prevailing conditions. The eCO2 and temperature stress effects on physiological aspects as well as biochemical profile to characterize genotypes that differ in their response to stress conditions. The aim of this review is directed the open-top cavities to regulate the properties like physiological, biochemical, and yield of crops under increasing aCO2, and temperature. Overall, the extent of the effect of eCO2 and temperature response to biochemical components and antioxidants remains unclear, and therefore further studies are required to promote an unperturbed production system.
Part of the book: Abiotic Stress in Plants