The European Union greenhouse gas emission reduction target can be achieved only by applying efficient technologies, which give reliable results in a very short time. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) into geological formations covers capturing CO2 at the large point sources, its transportation and underground deposition. The CCS technology is applicable to different industries (natural gas processing, power generation, iron and steel production, cement manufacturing, etc.). Due to huge storage capacity and existing infrastructure, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs are one of the most favourable storage options. In order to give overall cross section through CCS technology, implementation status and other relevant issues, the chapter covers EU regulation, technology overview, large-scale and pilot CCS projects, CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects, geological storage components, CO2 storage capacity, potential CO2 migration paths, risk assessment and CO2 injection monitoring. Permanent geological sequestration depends on both natural and technical site performance. Site selection, designing, construction and management must ensure acceptable risk rates of less than 1% over thousands of years.
Part of the book: CO2 Sequestration