Spain has a long mining tradition dating from pre-historic times up to the present day. The cessation of mining activity has generated a large amount of mine wastes, most of which represent geochemical hazards. Mine tailings are watery sludge composed of medium-to-fine-grained material, resulting from grinding and mineral processing (e.g., galena, pyrite, sphalerite, and arsenopyrite). They entail both an accumulation and a potential subsequent emission source of trace elements (i.e. As, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) with formation of acid mine drainage (AMD). Mineralogical and geochemical techniques (in combination with geophysical surveys and aerial photographs studies) have been jointly applied to selected mine areas. Seven mine deposits from the most important mine districts in Spain have been selected: Iberian Pyrite Belt, Cartagena-La Unión, Alcudia Valley, and Mazarrón. The main goal is focused on getting a geoenvironmental characterization as complete as possible by determining the geometry, evolution in time and composition of mine ponds, and the possible occurrence of AMD, for identifying related environmental hazards.