Formaldehyde, a simple but important member of aldehydes, is highly reactive due to its strong electrophilic properties. It is a colorless, pungent, low molecular weight poisonous gas that can rapidly pass into gaseous phase at room temperature, can burn, and can dissolve very well in water. Formaldehyde, which is found in the natural structure of the organism, is used in many places from industrial areas to household materials and from the production of coatings in dentistry to the determination of cadavers in laboratories. In addition to having such a wide range of uses, it has harmful effects on human health as it can react spontaneously with various cellular elements. In this review, which is based on various sources, detailed information about the definition, properties, usage areas, and harmful effects of formaldehyde will be given.
Part of the book: Biochemical Toxicology
In organic chemistry, good knowledge of the chemistry of reactive intermediates is very important in understanding organic chemistry, which has a systematic like mathematics. Having this information, it is possible to predict the reactions and the products to be formed on the reactive intermediates. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to learn organic chemistry, which has a very wide scope. This chapter of the book will be a guide that summarizes the essential information about carbene, one of the important reactive intermediates. It is planned to include the following sub-headings in this chapter: Carbene definition and properties, Nomenclature of carbenes, Structure and reactivity of carbenes, Carbene synthesis, Carbene reactions.
Part of the book: Carbene
Schiff bases, which were first obtained by the German chemist H. Schiff in 1864, are used in the paint industry, polymer technology, pharmaceutical industry, medicine, agriculture, preparation of rocket fuel, and explanation of biological events, and in many other areas due to the groups in their structures. This chapter will be a guide that contains a summary of general information that should be known about these compounds, which have a wide range of use in our daily life. In this chapter, the following topics are planned to be explained. (1) Schiff bases, physical and chemical properties, (2) the formation mechanism of Schiff bases, (3) Schiff base reactions, (4) metal complexes of Schiff base, (5) classification of Schiff bases, (6) biological activity of Schiff bases, and (7) usage of Schiff bases.
Part of the book: Schiff Base in Organic, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry