Four-dimensional (4D) imaging provides a useful estimation of tissue motion pattern and range for radiation therapy of moving targets. 4D-CT imaging has been a standard care of practice for stereotactic body radiation therapy of moving targets. Recently, 4D-MRI has become an emerging developmental area in radiotherapy. In comparison with 4D-CT imaging, 4D-MRI provides better spatial rendering of radiotherapy targets in abdominal and pelvis regions with improved visualization of soft tissue motion. Successful implementation of 4D-MRI requires an integration of optimized acquisition protocols, advanced image reconstruction techniques, and sufficient hardware capabilities. The proposed chapter intends to introduce basic theories, current research, development, and applications of 4D-MRI in radiotherapy.
Part of the book: Magnetic Resonance Imaging