The term larva applies to the young hatchling which varies from the grown up adult in possessing organs not present in the adult such as sex glands and associated parts. Insect development is of four types namely Ametabolous, Paurometabolous, Hemimetabolous and Holometabolous. The larvae appear in variety of forms and are termed as caterpillars, grubs or maggots in different insects groups. The larval development consists of series of stages in which each stage is separated from the next by a molt. It’s a complex process involving hormones, proteins and enzymes. Insects grow in increments. The molting is the process through which insects can routinely cast off their exoskeleton during specific times in their life cycle. The insect form in between two subsequent molts is termed as instar. The number of instars varies from 3 to 40 in different insect orders depending on the surrounding environmental and other conditions such as inheritance, sex, food quality and quantity. The larvae are categorized into four types namely Protopod larva, Polypod larva, Oligopod larva and Apodous larva.
Part of the book: Edible Insects
Floral and faunal diversity represents the health of an ecosystem. Increase in the number of endangered plants acts as an alarming sign of ecosystem’s imbalance. The ecological failure pose threat to our own health, thus by saving endangered species our own health is being saved. Government, non-profit international organizations, local communities and individuals are working together to protect and restore population levels. Biological Diversity Act (2002) for conservation of biodiversity is a landmark effort by Indian government as it provides mechanisms for knowledge, sustainable use of components of biological diversity and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources. The various awareness campaigns have been conducted for local communities with regard to the conservation of endangered species. Both in-situ (on site) and ex-situ (off site) conservation strategies target critical habitats under continuous threat of extinction. Conservation programmes that centred mainly on the local masses which completely depend upon the environment including forests, lakes and wildlife for their needs truly showcase the leadership of local and indigenous communities in protecting biodiversity. The rights of local communities in decision making must be recognized and supported through clear laws and regulations. Sacred groves, a legacy of prehistoric traditions of nature conservation act as an ideal centre for biodiversity conservation. Besides providing vital ecosystem services to people, these are of immense ecological significance. Community conservation is the need of the hour in terms of conserving biodiversity at ground level.
Part of the book: Endangered Plants