Methyltransferases play a fundamental role in aminoglycoside resistance of Gram-negative bacteria, and some of its mechanisms were described in the past years, especially in Escherichia coli; however, it remains unsolved for other resistant bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite hurdles to determine resistance acquisition, high-throughput approaches (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) have allowed data mining and analysis in a systemic way. Likewise, bioinformatics modelling of homologous genes or proteins has permitted to elucidate the emerging resistance in this pathogen. P. aeruginosa is a bacterial resistance treat since practically all known resistance mechanisms can be described using this model, particularly RNA methyltransferases. The RNA methyltransferases perform methylation or demethylation of ribosomal RNA to allow or restrict the antibiotic resistance development. The Kgm and Kam methyltransferases families are found in P. aeruginosa and confer resistance to several aminoglycosides. Loss of native methylations may also confer a resistant phenotype. The P. aeruginosa RsmG has high structural homology with Thermus aquaticus protein. Today, molecular data will promote a new paradigm on antibiotic therapy for treatment against P. aeruginosa. This chapter provides an overview of what role P. aeruginosa’s methyltransferases play in antibiotic resistance, induced by methylation or demethylation in the ribosome.
Part of the book: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa