Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have found numerous applications in fiber lasers, sensors, telecommunication, and many other fields. Traditionally, they are fabricated using UV laser sources and a phase mask or other interferometric techniques. In the past two decades, FBGs have been fabricated with femtosecond lasers in either the point-by-point method or by using a phase mask, in a similar configuration as with UV laser sources. In the following, we briefly review the advantages of femtosecond fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings. We then focus on transient FBGs; these are FBGs that exist for a short duration only, for the purpose of all-optical, in-fiber switching and modulation and the possible mechanism to implement them with a high-power femtosecond laser. The theory behind transient grating switching is outlined, and we discuss related experimental results achieved by our group on both permanent grating inscription and the generation of transient (dynamic) fiber Braggs gratings.
Part of the book: Fiber Optic Sensing