Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by morphological dysplastic changes in one or more of the major hematopoietic cell lines. MDS can present with varying degrees of single or multiple cytopenias including neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Presentation of MDS can range from asymptomatic to life threatening. MDS diagnosis and classification present important challenges, particularly in the distinction from benign conditions. French-American-British (FAB) classification proposed a classification based on easily obtainable laboratory information and was recommended in early and as modified by guidelines of new classification of World Health Organization (WHO). The strategy of diagnostic laboratory in MDS depends on morphological changes and is based on existence of dysplastic changes in the peripheral blood and bone marrow including peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspirate smear and bone marrow trephine biopsy. The correct morphological interpretation and the use of cytogenetics, immunophenotyping, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis will give valuable information on diagnosis and prognosis.
Part of the book: Recent Developments in Myelodysplastic Syndromes