The knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint in the human body. Bone structures, capsules, menisci, and ligaments provide static stability in the knee joint and are responsible for dynamic stabilization of the muscles and tendons. Menisci are fibrocartilage structures that cover two-thirds of the tibial plateau joint surface. The main functions of the meniscus are load sharing and loading of the tibiofemoral joint, shock absorption, helping to feed the cartilage by facilitating dissociation of the joint fluid, and contributing to the joint fit by increasing joint stability and joint contact surface area. Menisci are frequently injured structures. The incidence of acute meniscal tears is 60 per 100,000. It is more common in males. Trauma-related tears are common in patients under 30 years of age, whereas degenerative complex tears increase in patients over 30 years of age. There may not be a significant trauma story, especially in degenerative meniscus tears. They are sports traumas that come to the fore in the etiology of meniscus tears. It is the football that has the greatest risk of creating a meniscus lesion, followed by athletics, American football, and skiing. There is an indication for repair in peripheral ruptures where blood flow is excessive. In the central rupture where blood is not present, the treatment is meniscectomy. In this review, we compiled the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment methods of the meniscal tears.
Part of the book: Meniscus of the Knee