Wine is the alcoholic beverage which is the product of alcoholic fermentation, usually, of fresh grape must. Grape microbiome is the source of a vastly diverse pool of filamentous fungi, yeast, and bacteria, the combination of which plays a crucial role for the quality of the final product of any grape must fermentation. In recent times, the significance of this pool of microorganisms has been acknowledged by several studies analyzing the microbial ecology of grape berries of different geographical origins, cultural practices, grape varieties, and climatic conditions. Furthermore, the microbial evolution of must during fermentation process has been overstudied. The combination of the microbial evolution along with metabolic and sensorial characterizations of the produced wines could lead to the suggestion of the microbial terroir. These aspects are today leading to open a new horizon for products such as wines, especially in the case of PDO-PGI products. The aims of this review is to describe (a) how the microbiome communities are dynamically differentiated during the process of fermentation from grape to ready-to-drink wine, in order to finalize each wine’s unique sensorial characteristics, and (b) whether the microbiome could be used as a fingerprinting tool for geographical indication, based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. Nowadays, it has been strongly indicated that microbiome analysis of grapes and fermenting musts using next-generation sequencing (NGS) could open a new horizon for wine, in the case of protected designation of origin (PDO) and protected geographical indication (PGI) determination.
Part of the book: Advances in Grape and Wine Biotechnology