We commonly diagnose ocular diseases via both morphological changes and symptoms. It is necessary to develop biochemically based assays for early or follow-up diagnosis of these diseases with a focus on robustness and ease of handling. To lay out a prospective path toward this goal, we describe and propose the use of ultrahigh sensitive paper-based ELISA (p-ELISA), which uses a treated piece of filter paper to monitor the activity of ocular diseases (i.e., detecting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in aqueous humour for proliferative diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration diagnosis). The advantages of p-ELISA include the following: (1) the capacity to directly measure biomarker concentrations in aqueous humour using only a tiny sample volume (as little as 2 μL); (2) significantly increased sensitivity compared to conventional ELISA (fg/mL levels); and (3) inexpensive materials and a short operation duration. P-ELISA is a novel point-of-care diagnostic tool with the significant potential to advance ophthalmological treatment guidelines by facilitating early detection and routinely monitoring therapeutic response.
Part of the book: Novel Diagnostic Methods in Ophthalmology