Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by bilateral intraocular inflammation, exudative retinal detachments, and extraocular manifestations in the auditory, integumentary, and central nervous systems (CNS). This condition is driven by T-cell-mediated autoimmunity directed against melanocytes present in the uveal tissue, in a specific genetic context. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, accounting with a set of standardized diagnostic criteria. Studies have reported that patients who have a significant delay in the diagnosis and/or clinical signs of the chronic stage of the disorder have a poorer prognosis and thus special efforts have to be performed in order to have an early diagnosis, together with an appropriate treatment. In that sense, the development of tools that allow us to detect this disease and its degree of severity is extremely important. In this line, novel candidate biomarkers—such as quantification of mRNA levels of NOD and glucocorticoid receptor—have been recently reported, and they represent significant advances that can help the clinician to improve patient categorization and outcomes.
Part of the book: Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Uveitis