In common with other invertebrates, molluscs are known to have internal immune response against foreign particles and organisms. The innate immunity of molluscs reflects the inherent non-specific response that provides the first line of defense. Anatomic barriers, phagocytic cells, and physiological components are the main elements of the innate immune response in molluscs. It is composed of both cellular and humoral elements. The cellular components are the circulating hemocytes. Small invaders are eliminated by the phagocytic hemocytes, while large invaders are eliminated by encapsulation. The ingested foreign particles are then hemolyzed by the action of certain toxic enzymes that catalyze oxidative burst reactions capable of killing pathogens and foreign invaders. Humoral components of molluscan immunity involve nitric oxide, lysozyme activity, lectins, and the phenyloxidase system. The current chapter sheds light on the elements of the molluscan innate immune system and presents a case study of the immune response of Lymnaea stagnalis mollusc against Chaetogaster limnaei parasite. The effect of the parasite on some humoral immune response parameters such as nitric oxide, phenol oxidase, and lysozyme production was investigated. In conclusion, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis exerts humoral immune response against Chaetogaster limnaei parasite. However, this response is insufficient to eliminate the parasite.
Part of the book: Molluscs
In recent years, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have received considerable attention in both human and animal nutrition. As a mean of increasing the low consumption of long chain n-3 PUFA by humans consuming diets, there has been some interest in the enrichment of poultry meat with these fatty acids for people seeking healthy lifestyles. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, such as these found in fish oil and linseed oil, were found to have nutritional benefits in humans. Modulation of fatty acid profiles as a result of n-3 PUFA incorporation is well documented in humans, rodents, and poultry. The current chapter focuses on enriching poultry meat with these beneficial fatty acids to increase its consumption by human beings.
Part of the book: Nutrition in Health and Disease