HLA molecules scan the intracellular proteome and present self- or non-self-peptides to immune effector cells. HLA-Ia (HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C) are the most polymorphic genes, resulting in various numbers of allelic variants expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. In contrast to HLA-Ia molecules that activate the immune system during pathogenic invasion, the marginal polymorphic HLA-Ib molecules (HLA-E, HLA-F and HLA-G) are upregulated during pathogenic episodes and mediate immune tolerance. A fine tuning between downregulation of HLA-Ia and upregulation of HLA-Ib can be observed through immunological episodes that require to remain unrecognized by immune effector cells. While HLA-Ia molecules collaborate by presenting a wide range of peptides, every HLA-Ib molecule is highly specialized in its protective immune function and seems to be restricted in the presentation of peptides. Additionally, Ia molecules are expressed ubiquitously while the expression of HLA-Ib molecules is strictly restricted to certain tissues and occurs instantly on demand of the cells/tissue that attempt to be hidden from the immune system. The more knowledge becomes available for the function of HLA-Ib molecules; the question emerges if the molecular typing of HLA-Ib molecules would be reasonable to take a decision post treatment for personalized cellular therapies.
Part of the book: Immunogenetics
A medical product usually undergoes several clinical trials, including the testing of volunteers. Nevertheless, genomic variances in the patients cannot be considered comprehensively and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are missed or misinterpreted during trials. Despite the relation between ADRs and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules being known for several years, the fundamental molecular mechanisms leading to the development of such an ADR often remains only vaguely solved. The analysis of the peptidome can reveal changes in peptide presentation post-drug treatment and explain, for example, the severe cutaneous ADR in HLA-B*57:01-positive patients treated with the antiretroviral drug abacavir in anti-HIV therapy. However, as seen in the biophysical features of HLA-A*31:01-presented peptides, treatment with the anticonvulsant carbamazepine only induces minor changes. Since the binding of a drug to a certain HLA allelic variant is extremely distinct, the influence of the small molecule/protein complex on the proteomic content of a cell becomes clear. A sophisticated methodology elucidating the impact of drug treatment on cells is a full proteome analysis. The principal component analysis of abacavir, carbamazepine or carbamazepine-10,11-epoxid treated cells reveals clear clustering of the drug-treated and the untreated samples that express the respective HLA molecule. Following drug treatment, several proteins were shown to be significantly up- or downregulated. Proteomics and peptidomics are valuable tools to differential clinical outcomes of patients with the same HLA phenotype.
Part of the book: New Insights into the Future of Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety