The management of primary and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax can have many variations depending on the surgeons and their expertise of practice. The end goal is to stop the recurrence. The history of treatment, clinical indications for surgery, and preoperative and postoperative decision-making for intervention are summarized. Surgical intervention plays an important role in the management of recurrent pneumothorax and complex initial pneumothorax. Over the years the surgical techniques have evolved, and currently, video-assisted thoracoscopic techniques are frequently used in the management. In this concise report, we attempt to analyze the surgical techniques currently in use and their outcomes. Furthermore, we attempt to integrate future innovations in the management of this common disorder.
Part of the book: Pneumothorax
Lung transplantation is well accepted form of treatment for end-stage lung disease in selected patients. The number of lung transplants performed worldwide has increased annually with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being the leading cause. The morbidity and mortality in the early period are due to nonspecific primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and acute lung rejection (ALR). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the cause of long-term complications following lung transplantation and seen in almost half of the patient during the first 5 years. Activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines has been described during various phases of lung transplantation recovery. We reviewed the literature for cytokine activity associated with PGD, ALR, and CLAD. This review aims to summarize the specific associations between bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and plasma cytokine levels and the association of PGD, ALR, and CLAD.
Part of the book: Perioperative Care for Organ Transplant Recipient