Saltwater intrusion in the Changjiang Estuary and the impacts of river discharge, tide, wind, sea level rise, river basin, and major estuary projects on saltwater intrusion are studied in this chapter. There is a net landward flow in the NB (North Branch) when river discharge is low during spring tide, resulting in a type of saltwater intrusion known as the SSO (saltwater-spilling-over from the NB into the SB (South Branch)), which is the most striking characteristic of saltwater intrusion in the estuary. A three-dimension numerical model with HSIMT-TVD advection scheme was developed to study the hydrodynamic processes and saltwater intrusion in the Changjiang Estuary. Saltwater intrusion in the estuary is controlled mainly by river discharge and tide, but is also influenced by wind, sea level rise, river basin, and estuary projects. Saltwater intrusion is enhanced when river discharge decreases. There is more time for the reservoir to take freshwater from the river when river discharge is larger. The fortnightly spring tide generates greater saltwater intrusion than the neap tide. The saltwater intrusion in the SP (South Passage) is stronger than that in the NP (North Passage), and the intrusion in the NP is stronger than that in the NC (North Channel). The northerly wind produces southward currents along the Subei coast as well as the landward Ekman transport, which enhances the saltwater intrusion in the NC and NB and weakens the saltwater intrusion in the NP and SP. Saltwater intrusion becomes stronger as the sea level rises and is much stronger when river discharge is much small. The DWP (Deep Waterway Project) alleviates the saltwater intrusion in the NC and the lower reaches of the NP and enhances the saltwater intrusion in the SP and in the upper reaches of the NP. The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) increases river discharge in winter, which weakens saltwater intrusion, and is favorable for reducing the burden of freshwater supplement in the highly populated estuarine region. The Water Diversion South to the North Project (WDP) decreases river discharge, enhances saltwater intrusion, and is unfavorable for freshwater supply in the estuary.
Part of the book: Coastal Environment, Disaster, and Infrastructure