Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerosis, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia with high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Affected patients have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders (CVD), that are the leading cause of death in the Western countries. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the evolution of CVD hypothesizing the presence of a gender difference in the pathogenetic and progression determinants detectable in men and women. In this chapter, we will examine new gender-associated bioindicators of possible diagnostic or prognostic value in the MetS. Moreover, we will provide an overview on current knowledge on sex-associated cardiovascular determinants with the aim to improve CVD diagnostic and prognostic clinical courses and to develop new and gender-biased prevention strategies.
Part of the book: Carotid Artery