The onset search for differential protein expression in endometriosis commenced more than 30 years ago, when the gel electrophoresis could not be available to distinguish serum from women with and without disease. Gradually as the proteomics allows the comprehensive analysis of peritoneal fluid, serum and tissue samples with good sensitivity and resolution, it has promised in delivering markers possibility associated with endometriosis. Cytokines and growth factors that are present in serum, peritoneal fluid, endometrium, endometriotic lesions tissues and involved in tissue implanting process including hormone regulation, angiogenesis, invading and malignancy may be the focus to develop the noninvasive diagnostic test and possible treatment target for endometriosis. Individual peptides or proteins that are present or absent (or up- or down-regulated) in various conditions can be assessed as possible biomarkers. Alternatively, proteomic profiling, using mass spectrometry in combination with bioinformatics software to identify the actual protein and peptide pattern can be used as a distinctive marker to diagnostic and treatment target contribution to the disease.
Part of the book: Molecular Bases of Endometriosis